Beirut, the Mediterranean port metropolis, whose historical past contains a number of destruction and reconstructions since historical instances, was destroyed once more on the 4thth dated August 2020 (BBC, 2020). The double explosion, which originated in its seaport and rocked its capital, traveled inside a radius of 10 km east of Beirut, killing greater than 200 folks, injuring 7,000 and damaging greater than 8,000 buildings. In line with the Jordan Seismological Observatory, it was equal to an earthquake measuring 4.5 on the Richter scale and is taken into account to be probably the most highly effective non-nuclear explosions in historical past (Verma, 2020). The echo of the large explosion might be felt so far as Cyprus, about 200 km from Beirut (BBC, 2020). Native and worldwide media reported on the assorted facets of the explosion and its penalties. The humanities and tradition scene was highlighted as probably the most broken areas of Gemmayzeh and Mar Mikhael are recognized for his or her outdated historic buildings and vibrant arts and tradition scene. In preliminary injury assessments by UNESCO and the Ministry of Tradition, 640 historic buildings have been broken, 60 of that are in peril of collapse (UNESCO 2020).
Whereas nice consideration was paid to the destiny of personal artwork galleries and museums such because the Sursock Museum, a semi-private museum of recent and up to date artwork (Sursock, undated), the influence of the explosion on archeology has additionally been reported on, and the broken museums in Beirut have been nearly absent Fully. The purpose of this piece, subsequently, is to attract consideration to the influence of the explosion on the cultural heritage of Beirut, and particularly its archaeological museums, and, extra typically, to think about what the present lack of consideration on this sector suggests concerning the systemic issues of Beirut’s archeology , which means native, nationwide and worldwide politics alike.
Legacy in Beirut, earlier than and after the explosion
Lebanese cultural heritage has seen waves of looting, vandalism, neglect and destruction over the previous few a long time, and in all circumstances town’s social material, heritage and reminiscence have suffered (Naccache, 1998; Fricke, 2005; Sandes, 2017). Sarcastically, it was not the Lebanon Warfare that prompted a lot of the destruction, however the subsequent “reconstruction” of 1994, as your complete heart of town was actually and intentionally destroyed in Naccache in collaboration with archaeologists and consultants beneath UNESCO supervision (1998 , P. 140) referred to as a “Memorycide”. For a quick second, Beirut was named the biggest city archaeological web site on the planet (Haddad, 1998). A government-affiliated firm based to develop and rebuild Beirut, recognized by the French acronym SOLIDERE, got here to the “rescue” to construct a brand new and unrecognizable Beirut, with traces of battle eliminated and changed by new buildings have been changed to cover its scars and make Beirut “lovely” once more (Fricke, 2005). The systematic destruction of the heritage by SOLIDERE and its collaborators was monumental; it affected its residents who had misplaced their houses and companies, it affected its historical past when its archaeological websites and historic buildings have been erased and overbuilt, and it affected the widespread reminiscence of the Lebanese individuals who now not have a typical id. At present, the stays of nearly each pre-war interval have disappeared from the Beirut Central District (BCD), and now the historic Ashrafieh, Gemmayzeh and Mar Mkhayel neighborhoods, which escaped the 1994 bulldozers, have been badly broken by the seaport explosion. Given this destruction, the significance of preserving the archeology and historical past museums, which have been additionally broken by the explosion, is all of the extra necessary as they play an necessary position in preserving and celebrating town’s heritage.
The one archaeological museum in Beirut is situated within the crypt of the Saint George Orthodox Cathedral within the metropolis heart (Badre, 2016). The cathedral, which was badly broken in the course of the struggle, was once more badly broken within the explosion in 2020. Nevertheless, the situation of the museum itself is unknown. Different archaeological museums within the metropolis embrace the Nationwide Museum of Beirut (NMB) and two college museums; The American College of Beirut Museum (AUBM) and the Prehistory Museum (PM) on the College of Saint-Joseph. With their in depth collections of archaeological stays, cultural occasions and lectures, they’ve performed an necessary position within the museum sector.
All through the nation’s turbulent trendy historical past, these museums have every seen their share of the calamity. That is maybe no more true than within the case of the NMB. Inaugurated on 27th in Could 1942 it was enriched by archaeological artifacts found in the course of the numerous excavations carried out in Lebanon, in addition to by donations (Chehab, 1937; Asmar, 1997). At 13thth In April 1975 the Lebanon Warfare broke out and compelled the museum to shut its doorways to the general public. Between that yr and 1990 the Museum Sq. turned a demarcation line referred to as the “Museum Passage”, which divided Beirut into east and west. The then head of the Antiquities Service and curator of the NMB, Maurice Chéhab, his spouse Olga and members of the museum crew rescued and guarded the artifacts from the hazards of looting and destruction (Asmar, 1997; Speetjens, 1997). The spontaneous threat administration plan and rescue operation have been a hit, and by the tip of the struggle in 1990, most artifacts have been discovered intact (El Dahdah, 1995; Pharès, 2003). The injury was primarily restricted to the constructing itself and its warehouses. Restoration work was then carried out by the Ministry of Tradition and the Nationwide Heritage Basis (a non-profit group created in 1996 by a bunch of Lebanese intellectuals to protect the Lebanese cultural heritage). In 1999 the museum reopened with a very renovated floor ground and a primary ground to welcome its guests once more (Pharès and Farchakh, 2003).
The August explosion didn’t have a significant influence on the NMB because the injury was primarily structural whereas the gathering and museum workers remained protected. The AUBM additionally suffered some structural injury however misplaced a show case that incorporates over 70 historical glass artifacts from the Roman to the Islamic interval. This was communicated a couple of weeks afterward the museum’s web site, adopted by a collection of reside Fb movies exhibiting the lifting of the fallen show case and the restoration of the remaining items (View American College of Beirut (AUB) on Fb, 2020). The Prime Minister posted some particulars on his Fb web page (not pictured) concerning the cleansing course of carried out by a crew of Blue Protect volunteers (Musée de Préhistoire Libanaise, 2020). Aside from the college museums, non-public museums with archaeological collections such because the Villa Audi Mosaic Museum and the Robert Mouawad Non-public Museum at the moment are completely closed. Nevertheless, there was no info on the information about their structural situation or collections after the explosion. The relative lack of awareness conveyed by the archeology museums will be contrasted with that of the Sursock Museum, which shortly turned a spotlight of worldwide media consideration. Just a few hours after the explosion, footage have been posted on the museum’s Fb (Sursock, 2020) and Instagram (Sursock, 2020) web page exhibiting the broken constructing and assortment in addition to surveillance cameras in the mean time of the explosion. The museum stays energetic on all of its social media platforms, posting footage of the cleansing, restoration and rehabilitation work every day.
The cultural neighborhood in Beirut was already on the breaking level when the explosion hit. Cultural establishments have already been burdened by latest occasions similar to a preferred rebellion, an financial collapse and the worldwide pandemic. Previously two years, Lebanon has confronted its worst financial disaster in historical past, when the Lebanese lira fell to half its official worth this yr and the nation is on the verge of monetary collapse (Hubbard, 2020). The cultural sector relied primarily on non-public initiatives and was already affected by a extreme lack of monetary assets. The finances of the Ministry of Tradition makes up lower than 1% of the full state finances (Agenda Culturel, 2020).
This leads to a whole incapability to pay easy month-to-month payments, in addition to the lack to prepare cultural occasions. The non-public sector isn’t spared; Nearly two years in the past, the Sursock Museum introduced it will shorten its opening days to save cash and even thought-about closing for good and launched a fundraiser to stop it from closing completely (Khoury, 2019). Along with the already current weak financial scenario, the 17thth The October 2019 rebellion crippled the nation’s financial system for 2 weeks in a row. The motion calling for primary civil rights and political reform remains to be happening after eleven months (Sullivan, 2019). It’s price noting that the protesters confirmed a deep appreciation for his or her heritage. Whereas on the streets of Beirut and tenting within the public locations, folks promoted the preservation of the archaeological websites that have been scattered on and round these locations and reclaimed the general public house as theirs. Within the early days of the rebellion, the cultural scene in Lebanon typically, and in Beirut particularly, closed its museums, galleries and artwork areas in solidarity with the thousands and thousands of demonstrators. Even after a few of them reopened, the scenario remained unstable as day by day anti-government demonstrations befell on the streets of Beirut, inflicting full paralysis of the nation (Dafoe, 2019). Round March 2020 they needed to shut once more due to the Covid-19 lockdown, and on August Four your complete metropolis was destroyed (Sewell, 2020).
The August 4th explosion thus uncovered points that have to be addressed. The dearth of a coherent cultural coverage for the nation that may regulate, defend, promote and in the end financially assist cultural actions by way of actions, legal guidelines and applications has made it attainable for cultural establishments to defend themselves and discover inventive methods to satisfy these challenges proceed to care for his or her communities.
Outdated Lebanese cultural legal guidelines require structural reforms to offer readability and path for cultural administration, decision-making and the division of tasks. In museums, the dearth of clear legal guidelines and laws has created main issues associated to the possession and custody of personal collections. Unbiased companies just like the Excessive Fee of Museums would assist fill the void left by the ruling events. This fee, which is regulated within the decree of the Official Journal revealed in 2016 (No. 3050 | 12/03/2016), consists of a President and 7 members of the Board of Administrators (Official Journal, 2016). Their job is to supervise and strengthen the institution and administration of Lebanese private and non-private museums, protect Lebanese cultural heritage and enhance the talents of museum professionals. Thus far, this fee has not been operational for causes that aren’t clear. Nevertheless, given the finances cuts dealing with the financial system, it is vitally doubtless that the actions of this fee might be suspended for an unsure interval.
One other group that may assist form the museum sector in Lebanon is the Nationwide Committee of the Worldwide Council of Museums (ICOM). All museums that have been affected by the explosion in Beirut have been ICOM members for years. As an professional discussion board, ICOM makes suggestions on problems with cultural heritage, promotes capability constructing, expands data and units skilled and moral requirements for museum actions. There’s additionally a code of ethics and a algorithm and laws that outline what a museum is or what it ought to be. And the position of a museum as an integrative establishment, primarily accountable for defending and selling cultural heritage, is on the prime of the mission. A museum performs an necessary social position and works often with its neighborhood (Worldwide Council of Museums, 2017).
The August Four explosion got here at a time when the Lebanese cultural sector was dealing with a sluggish dying. Within the interval that adopted, numerous native and worldwide organizations hurried to supply their assist and restore what had been destroyed. Nevertheless, this revealed not solely the injury attributable to the explosion, but additionally the weak spot of the sector, which was already affected by it. Nevertheless, it could possibly additionally open a small window the place you may hit the reset button to permit a recent begin with a distinct method and objectives. The cultural sector is now taking part in a necessary position in reshaping the longer term after the explosion. In spite of everything, the lack of heritage is an act of symbolic violence in opposition to the previous and future residents of Beirut, because the erasure of cultural reminiscence disconnects the reference to the previous, which is “a necessary a part of forging and sustaining trendy identities” (Meskell, 2002, p. 564). The failure to protect Beirut’s pre-war social material and structure ought to inspire us right this moment to salvage what’s left and to oppose calls to rebuild these areas, as SOLIDERE did within the BCD. Museums in Beirut ought to specific their social position as a spot to specific, contest and convey the id and reminiscence of the neighborhood. This can’t be achieved with out the involvement of your complete neighborhood with which the museum is designed to maintain the technique of communication open.
Public relations and communication, particularly in instances of disaster, place museums on the heart of their communities, making them extra accessible and visual, and ought to be a part of a museum’s communication plan (French and Runyard, 2011, p. 242). Social media is crucial on this course of and far will be discovered from the Sursock Museum’s technique of grabbing immediate consideration and spreading information. This could go a good distance in elevating consciousness, elevating funds, and shortly refurbishing the museum.
Cultural establishments and museums in post-colonial Lebanon (as elsewhere on the planet) have a protracted historical past of elitism and exclusivity. Museums around the globe, nonetheless, have change into extra dedicated to their communities, and the idea of elite museum has step by step modified to be extra accessible, inclusive (Moffitt, 2017) and emphasize social engagement (Brown and Mairesse, 2018 ). Even the phrase “museum” has been questioned as they’re now seen as key gamers in social points such because the surroundings and local weather change, migration and integration, digital democracy, cities and concrete growth, vitamin and well being (Black, 2018; ICOM, 2019). This was significantly seen within the majority of museums supporting the welfare of the worldwide neighborhood by diversifying their choices on-line in the course of the COVID-19 lockdown. This isn’t with out its issues as museums around the globe are dealing with main challenges, particularly in the course of the disaster attributable to the pandemic. A lot of them have needed to reduce and downsize their budgets for the approaching yr, whereas others face everlasting closure.
To make up for the dearth of assets, cultural establishments typically, and museums particularly, can arrange volunteer applications and neighborhood councils. Volunteer applications may help recruit younger lovers, practice them and use their experience in instances of disaster and the place it’s wanted. After the explosion in Beirut and as a result of lack of such applications in museums, a bunch of Balamand College educated college students in museology and cultural heritage administration superior to assist the toughest hit museums, from the Sursock Museum to the AUBM (Asser, 2020). Neighborhood councils are one other means museums have interaction and contain their communities, making them an equal accomplice in decision-making, in addition to in creating and shaping their mission. These applications, which contain representatives from massive firms, schools, authorities companies and native authorities, can help the museum to find and releasing funds and serving as ambassadors for these establishments to unfold consciousness by spreading their messages, particularly in instances of want.
Plans and companions to handle such crises may help mitigate the worst outcomes. A number of native and worldwide organizations have organized coaching applications on protect a threatened heritage and put together museums for emergencies. One was organized in 2013 by a Lebanese NGO, Biladi Historical past and Nature, in collaboration with the Crimson Cross and the Lebanese Military (Biladi, undated; Aql Khalil, 2013), and one other coaching was organized by the UNESCO workplace in Beirut in 2015 In 2015 collectively organized cooperation with the Lebanese Nationwide Committee of ICOM with regards to “Emergency preparedness in museums” (Unesco, 2015). Such plans may help museums mobilize workers and volunteers to reply to disasters and disseminate details about the heritage beneath risk.
The best way ahead can be to speak in confidence to the youthful era by taking part in a job in decision-making whereas incorporating new experience and expertise, providing new coaching alternatives and introducing new different partnerships. This new era of museum professionals can pave the way in which for a extra inclusive and socially energetic museum that may face new challenges. As soon as the paths between the neighborhood and its museum are open and accessible, the museum can reaffirm its social position by actually conveying the neighborhood’s id and reminiscence.
As a result of museums aren’t simply repositories for objects and useful artworks, however can play a key position in serving to communities bear in mind their previous and envision their future. Preserving the scars from the explosion and documenting the occasion that has now change into a part of the collective reminiscence is a necessary step within the therapeutic course of. Youngsters’s applications, as provided by each AUBM and PM, can now be used greater than ever to advertise the significance of heritage conservation and supply a protected house for kids and adults to specific their emotions and the to cope with detrimental experiences that she needed to endure as a way to reconcile with the traumatic previous.
The exhibition of relics from revolutions and political actions ought to be a part of their everlasting set up. There’s already one thing like this on the NMB, the place guests are invited to observe a documentary entitled “Revival”, which tells the story of the museum and its assortment once they have been “rediscovered” and restored after the Lebanon Warfare. As well as, a conglomerate of metallic, ivory, stone and terracotta is on show in one of many showcases on the primary ground – objects that have been saved in the course of the struggle and all melted collectively as a result of a fireplace and thus fused into one object. As a substitute of throwing it away or storing it, the NMB displayed it so guests can see the struggle injury to the collections. Museums can use such objects to commemorate each the battle itself and the vulnerability of the cultural heritage.
This text appeared on the influence of the August explosion on Beirut’s cultural heritage by way of its museums, a sector that was largely absent from the talks after the explosion. This absence is due largely to the erosion of a typical Lebanese id and heritage in latest a long time, exacerbated by a museum neighborhood that has most well-liked to isolate itself intellectually and socially from the final inhabitants. Whereas these are systemic issues whose roots return to 19th and 20th century Orientalism (Stated 1978), our focus right here was on the trendy age. Within the 1990s, by way of the work of SOLIDERE, politicians and growth planners introduced concerning the destruction of the heritage and archaeological websites of Beirut beneath the guise of “rebuilding” town, whereas working with native and worldwide archaeologists and beneath the supervision of UNESCO ( Naccache, 1998). No matter has escaped this destruction has not been totally protected by Lebanese legal guidelines, which stay old-fashioned and incomplete.
The financial collapse that has plagued the nation for nearly a yr led to additional finances cuts that stalled the cultural sector and offered little or no assist within the latest catastrophe. Now the worldwide neighborhood (UNESCO, ICOM, ALIPH, Blue Protect, and so on.) is once more planning to assist save and rebuild Beirut. Though each effort is crucial after this catastrophe, we advise warning to not repeat previous errors. Reasonably, it’s mandatory to place apart a colonial narrative that appears to haven’t any finish as a way to allow sustainable and native administration of future initiatives.
Lastly, we should always keep away from drawing the flawed classes from this occasion. Threats to museums and websites can come up wherever from fireplace (Brazil’s Museo Nacional, France’s Notre Dame) to pure disasters (Port-au-Prince in Haiti, Japan’s historic and archaeological websites) to social uprisings (Egypt’s Tahrir Sq.) and even terrorism (the World Commerce Middle in New York Metropolis housed a big assortment of wonderful artwork), and never all eventualities are to be anticipated. On the very least, museums ought to do their finest to maintain their holdings up-to-date in order that if objects go lacking for later use are straightforward to return, beneath the phrases of the 1970 UNESCO Conference, which incorporates Lebanon Antiques market to seem a signatory. Nevertheless, these occasions ought to on no account function assist for a colonialist (and orientalist) view that Lebanon can’t protect and administer its “antiquities”. Reasonably, worldwide, nationwide and native communities should proceed to work collectively to assist efforts to guard the collections and develop human relationships that museums matter to the communities wherein they reside.
Agenda Culturel (2020) CULTURE IN LEBANON BY 2020 State of play. Beirut. Accessible at: https://pdf4pro.com/view/culture-in-lebanon-by-2020-agenda-culturel-ed10.html.
View American College of Beirut (AUB) on Fb (2020). Accessible at: https://www.fb.com/aub.edu.lb/movies/tomorrow-from-9-amjoin-us-live-here-on-aub-facebook-at-the-museum-for-the -liftin / 711125352802063 / (Entry: September 25, 2020).
Aql Khalil, N. (2013) «مسعفو »الثقافة يتدربون لإنقاذ التراث قي حالات الطوارئ | الموقع الرسمي للجيش اللبناني.
Asmar, C. (1997) “Histoire des Collections des Musée Nationwide de Beyrouth (la Assortment Ford)”, ARCHEOLOGY & HISTORY IN LEBANON5, pp. 2-6.
Asser, M. (2020) The AUB Archaeological Museum is counting the price of the explosion in Beirut, American College of Beirut. Accessible at: http://www.aub.edu.lb:80/articles/Pages/archaeological-museum-beirut-blast.aspx (accessed September 7, 2020).
American College Museum’s Fb Dwell: https://www.fb.com/watch/?v=711125352802063
Badre, L. (2016) “The Greek Orthodox Cathedral of St. George in Beirut, Lebanon: The Museum of Archaeological Excavations and Crypt”, Journal of Japanese Mediterranean Archeology & Heritage Research4 (1), pp. 72-97.
BBC Information. (August 11, 2020) “Explosion in Beirut: What We Know So Far”. Accessible at: https://www.bbc.com/information/world-middle-east-53668493 (accessed September 21, 2020).
Biladi (undated) “Discipline of exercise 2: Safety of cultural heritage – BILADI heritage for dialogue”. Accessible at: http://biladi.org/2019/08/07/work-field-2-heritage-protection (accessed September 11, 2020).
Black, G. (2018) “The Social Position of Museums”, Rotterdam night time shift, October 25, 2018. Accessible at: https://www.nightshift010.nl/the-social-role-of-museums-by-graham-black/ (accessed September 14, 2020).
Brown, Okay. and Mairesse, F. (2018) “The definition of the museum by way of its social position”, Curator: The Museum Journal61 (4), pp. 525-539.
Chehab, M. (1937) “Le Musée de Beyrouth: Un trésor d’orfèverie Syro-egyptien”, Bulletin du Musée de Beyrouth1, pp. 1-16.
Dafoe, T. (October 22, 2019). “Artwork organizations in Beirut be part of forces in solidarity with the thousands and thousands of Lebanese who’re protesting in opposition to the federal government. Museums, galleries, and artwork foundations have ceased enterprise indefinitely. ” Information Artnet, Accessible at: https://information.artnet.com/art-world/beirut-arts-organizations-closing-protests-1685554 (accessed on September 21, 2020).
El Dahdah, F. (1995) “On the primary post-war exhibition”, ARCHEOLOGY & HISTORY IN LEBANON1, pp. 12-13.
French, Y. and Runyard, S. (2011) Advertising and marketing and public relations for museums, galleries, cultural and cultural heritage websites. London, UNITED KINGDOM: Taylor & Francis Group. Accessible at: http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/cunygc/element.motion?docID=710110 (accessed September 7, 2020).
Fricke, A. (2005) “Eternally near the purpose: Cultural heritage coverage and the issue of reminiscence in Beirut after the struggle”, IJCP, 12, p. 163.
Haddad, R. (1998) Too many archeological websites in downtown Beirut to excavate. Artwork & Ent, Tradition | THE DAILY STAR. Accessible from: https://www.dailystar.com.lb/Tradition/Artwork/1998/Aug-25/100563-too-many-archaeological-sites-in-downtown-beirut-to-excavate-all-of-them .ashx (accessed September 10, 2020).
Hubbard, B. (Could 10, 2020) “Financial disaster in Lebanon explodes threatening a long time of prosperity “, New York Instances, Accessible at: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/10/world/middleeast/lebanon-economic-crisis/. (Accessed: September 21, 2020).
ICOM (2019) ICOM declares the choice museum definition to be voted on, I COM. Accessible at: https://icom.museum/en/information/icom-announces-the-alternative-museum-definition-that-will-be-subject-to-a-vote/ (accessed September 9, 2020).
Worldwide Museum Council (2017) ICOM Code of Ethics for Museums. Paris: ICOM.
Khoury, E. (2019) The Sursock Museum is in search of donors, L’Orient-Le Jour. Accessible at: https://www.lorientlejour.com/article/1158179/cash-strapped-sursock-museum-is-looking-for-donors.html (accessed September 9, 2020).
Mallat D. (September 22, 2020) “Les musées du Liban sont riches par leurs collections, mais petits par leurs moyens”, L’Orient-Le Jour. Accessible at: https://www.lorientlejour.com/article/1233479/-les-musees-du-liban-sont-riches-par-leurs-collections-mais-petits-par-leurs-moyens-.html (entry ) September 22, 2020).
Meskell, L. (2002) “Unfavorable Legacy and Earlier Mastery of Archeology”, Anthropologically quarterly75 (3), pp. 557-574.
Moffitt, Okay. (2017) How are museums altering from establishments of the elite to locations that “promote humanity”?, St. Louis Public Radio. Accessible at: https://information.stlpublicradio.org/present/st-louis-on-the-air/2017-05-11/how-are-museums-changing-from-institutions-of-the-elite-to Locations that promote humanity (accessed September 9, 2020).
Musée de Préhistoire Libanaise (2020). Accessible at: https://www.fb.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=1445873272267125&id=114126908775108 (accessed September 25, 2020).
Naccache, A. F. H. (1998) “Beirut’s Memorycide”, Archeology Underneath Assault: Nationalism, Politics, and Heritage within the Japanese Mediterranean and the Center EastPp. 140-158.
Official Journal (2016) :: الجامعة اللبنانية – مركز المعلوماتية القانونية :: التشريعات تنظيم كيفية يفليف مجلس ادارة الهيئة العامة للمتاحف وتحديدامه وصوص Accessible at: http://legallaw.ul.edu.lb/LawView.aspx?choose=view&LawID=258548 ( Entry: September 11, 2020).
Pharès, J. (2003) “The Nationwide Museum of Lebanon in Beirut”, Museum Worldwide55 (3-4), pp. 38-43.
Pharès, J. und Farchakh, J. (2003) „Le Musée nationwide du Liban à Beyrouth“, Museum worldwide(219), S. 38–43.
Fb-Beitrag des Prähistorischen Museums, 10. August 2020 (https://www.fb.com/114126908775108/posts/1445873272267125/)
Sagte Edward M. (1978). Orientalismus. New York: Pantheon.
Sewell, A. (15. März 2020) „Coronavirus: Libanon erklärt Ausnahmezustand und ordnet zweiwöchige Sperrung an“, Al Arabiya Englisch, Verfügbar unter: https://english.alarabiya.web/en/Information/middle-east/2020/03/15/Coronavirus-Lebanon-to-close-airport-borders-ports-some-public-institutions (Zugriff: 21. September 2020).
Sulivan, H. (29. Oktober 2019), „Die Entstehung der Oktoberrevolution im Libanon“, New-Yorker. Verfügbar unter: https://www.newyorker.com/information/dispatch/the-making-of-lebanons-october-revolution (Zugriff: 21. September 2020).
Sursock (ohne Datum) Architektur | Sursock Museum. Verfügbar unter: https://sursock.museum/content material/structure (Zugriff: 9. September 2020).
Sursock Museum Fb (https://www.fb.com/sursockmuseum/)
Sursock Museum Instagram (https://www.instagram.com/sursockmuseum/?hl=de)
Unesco (2015) Schulungsseminar zum Thema „Notfallvorsorge im Museum“ in der UNESCO in Beirut, UNESCO. Verfügbar unter: https://en.unesco.org/information/training-seminar-museum-emergency-preparedness-unesco-beirut (Zugriff: 11. September 2020).
Verma, N. (2020) Die humanitären Kosten der Hafenkatastrophe in Beirut, Die Organisation für den Weltfrieden. Verfügbar unter: https://theowp.org/the-humanitarian-cost-of-the-beirut-port-disaster/ (Zugriff: 9. September 2020).
Additional studying on e-international relations