Giuliani’s two employees – Lev Parnas and Igor Fruman – were arrested in October 2019 as they were preparing to board a flight from Washington to Frankfurt using one-way tickets. Mr Parnas and Mr Fruman have been accused of violating campaign finance laws that Mr Giuliani and Mr Trump believed were more against the, as part of a complex plot to undermine former American ambassador to Kiev, Marie L. Yovanovitch The Ukrainians should have put pressure on.
Prosecutors in Manhattan continued to investigate Mr Giuliani’s role in the program over the past year, focusing on whether, in order to oust the American ambassador to Ukraine, he was essentially double-diving: not only working for Mr Trump, but also for Ukrainian officials who wanted the ambassador to be gone for their own reasons, according to the people briefed on the matter.
It is a federal crime to attempt to influence the United States government without disclosing its involvement at the request or direction of a foreign official. Mr Giuliani has said that he did nothing wrong and that he did not register as a foreign agent for acting on behalf of Mr Trump, not Ukrainians.
Even though Mr Trump claims the election was stolen and files lawsuits to delay certification, his White House is preparing for the final stages of his presidency. The end of an administration usually leads to a wave of pardons, especially when a term like Mr. Trumps became controversial, in which several people close to him were involved in federal investigations.
“The power of pardon has been used politically selfishly by many presidents, be it George H.W. Bush or Clinton, “said Jack L. Goldsmith, a professor at Harvard Law School, citing how Bush pardoned six of his staff – including former Defense Secretary Caspar W. Weinberger – for their role in the Iran-Contra affair.
“Politically, a pardon for Giuliani would be explosive,” added Goldsmith, “but the pardons for friends have been done before.”
Under previous administrations, presidents largely granted pardons after going through a formal Justice Department review process in which attorneys reviewed convictions, discussed the implications of the possible pardon with prosecutors, and made recommendations to the White House on how to proceed. On several occasions, Mr Trump has violated the recommendations of the Department of Justice and the advice of his own White House advisers and granted pardons to political allies and celebrities.